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10 Year Outcomes after Monitoring, Surgery, or Radiotherapy for Localized Prostate Cancer
ProtecT

Freddie C. Hamdy, F.R.C.S.(Urol.), F.Med.Sci., Jenny L. Donovan, Ph.D., F.Med.Sci., J. Athene Lane, Ph.D., Malcolm Mason, M.D., F.R.C.R., Chris Metcalfe, Ph.D., Peter Holding, R.G.N., M.Sc., Michael Davis, M.Sc., Tim J. Peters, Ph.D., F.Med.Sci., Emma L. Turner, Ph.D., Richard M. Martin, Ph.D., Jon Oxley, M.D., F.R.C.Path., Mary Robinson, M.B., B.S., F.R.C.Path., John Staffurth, M.B., B.S., M.D., Eleanor Walsh, M.Sc., Prasad Bollina, M.B., B.S., F.R.C.S.(Urol.), James Catto, Ph.D., F.R.C.S.(Urol.), Andrew Doble, M.S., F.R.C.S.(Urol.), Alan Doherty, F.R.C.S.(Urol.), David Gillatt, M.S., F.R.C.S.(Urol.), Roger Kockelbergh, D.M., F.R.C.S.(Urol.), Howard Kynaston, M.D., F.R.C.S.(Urol.), Alan Paul, M.D., F.R.C.S.(Urol.), Philip Powell, M.D., F.R.C.S., Stephen Prescott, M.D., F.R.C.S.(Urol.), Derek J. Rosario, M.D., F.R.C.S.(Urol.), Edward Rowe, M.D., F.R.C.S.(Urol.), and David E. Neal, F.R.C.S., F.Med.Sci., for the ProtecT Study Group*
September 14, 2016 [Lien / www.nejm.org/]

Cancer localisé de la prostate
En terme de survie à 10 ans , le suivi fait aussi bien que la chirurgie

L'ablation de la prostate et la radiothérapie n'améliorent pas la survie des patients atteints de cancer par rapport à une surveillance active. C'est le résultat d'un suivi sur 10 ans. C’est surtout sur le plan des effets secondaires que la surveillance active se distingue. En effet bien que la chirurgie et la radiothérapie ont divisé par deux la progression de la tumeur en métastases par rapport à la surveillance cela ne se traduit pas par une survie améliorée, ce qui relativise leur intérêt.

BACKGROUND
The comparative effectiveness of treatments for prostate cancer that is detected by prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing remains uncertain.

METHODS
We compared active monitoring, radical prostatectomy, and external-beam radiotherapy for the treatment of clinically localized prostate cancer. Between 1999 and 2009, a total of 82,429 men 50 to 69 years of age received a PSA test; 2664 received a diagnosis of localized prostate cancer, and 1643 agreed to undergo randomization to active monitoring (545 men), surgery (553), or radiotherapy (545). The primary outcome was prostate-cancer mortality at a median of 10 years of follow-up. Secondary outcomes included the rates of disease progression, metastases, and all-cause deaths.

RESULTS
There were 17 prostate-cancer–specific deaths overall: 8 in the active-monitoring group (1.5 deaths per 1000 person-years; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7 to 3.0), 5 in the surgery group (0.9 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 0.4 to 2.2), and 4 in the radiotherapy group (0.7 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 0.3 to 2.0); the difference among the groups was not significant (P=0.48 for the overall comparison). In addition, no significant difference was seen among the groups in the number of deaths from any cause (169 deaths overall; P=0.87 for the comparison among the three groups).
Metastases developed in more men in the active-monitoring group (33 men; 6.3 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 4.5 to 8.8) than in the surgery group (13 men; 2.4 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.4 to 4.2) or the radiotherapy group (16 men; 3.0 per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 1.9 to 4.9) (P=0.004 for the overall comparison).
Higher rates of disease progression were seen in the active-monitoring group (112 men; 22.9 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 19.0 to 27.5) than in the surgery group (46 men; 8.9 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 6.7 to 11.9) or the radiotherapy group (46 men; 9.0 events per 1000 person-years; 95% CI, 6.7 to 12.0) (P<0.001 for the overall comparison).

CONCLUSIONS
At a median follow-up of 10 years, the ProtecT trial showed that mortality from prostate cancer was low, irrespective of treatment assignment. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy were associated with lower rates of disease progression than active monitoring; however, 44% of the patients who were assigned to active monitoring did not receive radical treatment and avoided side effects.

Men with newly diagnosed, localized prostate cancer need to consider the critical trade-off between the short-term and long-term effects of radical treatments on urinary, bowel, and sexual function and the higher risks of disease progression with active monitoring, as well as the effects of each of these options on quality of life.

Further follow-up of the ProtecT participants with longer-term survival data will be crucial to evaluate this trade-off in order to fully inform decision making for physicians and patients considering PSA testing and treatment options for clinically localized prostate cancer.

(Funded by the National Institute for Health Research; Current Controlled
Trials number, ISRCTN20141297; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02044172.)
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