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Benzodiazepine use and risk of incident dementia or cognitive decline: prospective population based study
[exte comple / BMJ 2016;352:i90]
Shelly L Gray, professor1, Sascha Dublin, associate scientific investigator2, Onchee Yu, senior biostatistician2, Rod Walker, biostatistician2, Melissa Anderson, senior biostatistician2, Rebecca A Hubbard, associate professor3, Paul K Crane, associate professor4, Eric B Larson, executive director2

Il n'existe aucun lien entre Benzodiazépines et Alzheimer,
«Dans cette étude longitudinale chez l'adulte âgé ayant des données de prescription fiables et bénéficiant d'une évaluation rigoureuse, nous n'avons retrouvé aucune association entre les plus fortes prises de benzodiaépines et la survenue d'une démence ou d'un déclin cognitif» affirment les auteurs. La faible augmentation retrouvée chez les utilisateurs faibles ou moyens de benzodizépines ne supporte pas de lien de causalité et représente une symptomatologie liée au traitement comme le confirme les analyses statistiques.
Ces résultats éclairant n'empêchent pas de tenir compte des autres effets secondaires connus des benzodiazépines et il reste recommandé aux soignants d'éviter les benzodiazépines chez les personnes âgés afin d'éviter ces effets secondaires, et toute dépendance conclu l'article

Objective
To determine whether higher cumulative use of benzodiazepines is associated with a higher risk of dementia or more rapid cognitive decline.
Design Prospective population based cohort.
Setting Integrated healthcare delivery system, Seattle, Washington.

Participants
3434 participants aged =65 without dementia at study entry. There were two rounds of recruitment (1994-96 and 2000-03) followed by continuous enrollment beginning in 2004.

Main outcomes measures
The cognitive abilities screening instrument (CASI) was administered every two years to screen for dementia and was used to examine cognitive trajectory. Incident dementia and Alzheimer’s disease were determined with standard diagnostic criteria. Benzodiazepine exposure was defined from computerized pharmacy data and consisted of the total standardized daily doses (TSDDs) dispensed over a 10 year period (a rolling window that moved forward in time during follow-up). The most recent year was excluded because of possible use for prodromal symptoms. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to examine time varying use of benzodiazepine and dementia risk. Analyses of cognitive trajectory used linear regression models with generalized estimating equations.

Results
Over a mean follow-up of 7.3 years, 797 participants (23.2%) developed dementia, of whom 637 developed Alzheimer’s disease. For dementia, the adjusted hazard ratios associated with cumulative benzodiazepine use compared with non-use were 1.25 (95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.51) for 1-30 TSDDs; 1.31 (1.00 to 1.71) for 31-120 TSDDs; and 1.07 (0.82 to 1.39) for =121 TSDDs. Results were similar for Alzheimer’s disease. Higher benzodiazepine use was not associated with more rapid cognitive decline.

Conclusion The risk of dementia is slightly higher in people with minimal exposure to benzodiazepines but not with the highest level of exposure. These results do not support a causal association between benzodiazepine use and dementia.

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